XX CENTURY

1901

Students’ demonstration was held in Kazanskaya Square.

The workers of the Narvskaya Zastava district collided with the police (Obukhovskaya Oborona / the ‘Obukhovo Defence’/).

Russia’s first football championship was held.

The Religious and Philosophical Society was formed.

The construction of the building for the Nikolaevskaya /’Nicholas’s’/ Academy of the General Staff Headquarters was completed.

 

1902

Polytechnical Institute was opened in Lesnoye.

A socialist revolutionary Stepan Balmashev assassinated Minister of Home Affairs, Dmitry Sipyagin.

 

1903

St. Petersburg festively celebrated its bicentenary.

The Troitsky / ‘Holy Trinity ‘ bridge opened. Petrovskaya Embankment was completed.

Countess Panina’s Ligovsky Narodny Dom / ‘People’s House’/ opened.

The Yeliseevs’ House was built in Nevsky Prospect.

Father George Gapon led the newly created St. Petersburg League of Russian Factory Workers.

A major flood raised the Neva waters 258 cm above the normal level.

 

1904

The League for the Emancipation conducted its congress.

A socialist-revolutionary Yegor Sazonov assassinated Vyacheslav Plehve, Minister of the Interior.

The construction of the Singer company building (now – The House of Books), Vitebskiy Railway Station, ballerina Matilda Kshesinskaya’s mansion and St.John’s Nunnery completed.

The construction of the Gavansky (Harbour) Workers’ Town in the western part of Vassilievsky (St. Basil’s) Island began.

Vera Komissarzhevskaya’s theatre and the Museum of Suvorov were opened.

Alexander Block published his book of poetry, ‘Poems about La Belle Dame’.

 

1905

‘Bloody Sunday’ and the first Russian Revolution.

General Political Strike. The Soviet of Workers’ Deputies (the Council of Workers’ Representatives) was founded.

The Manifesto of Nicholas II was published, granting people a number of civil freedoms.

Gregory Rasputin was introduced to the family of the Tsar.

An exhibition of Russian portrait paintings was held in Tavrichesky (Taurida) Palace.

Pushkinsky Dom («Pushkin’s House» Institute of Russian Literature) was founded.

 

1906

The First State Duma was elected and then dissolved two months later.

Sailors and soldiers revolted in Kronstadt.

An attempt was made to assassinate Pyotr Stolypin – Chairman of the Council of Ministers.

St. Petersburg workers’ deputies were arrested and then tried.

A first taxi appeared in the city’s streets.

 

1907

The Second State Duma was convoked and three months later dissolved.

The Church of the Resurrection of Christ (The Church of the Saviour on the Spilled Blood) was consecrated.

Regular tramway traffic began.

The Institute of Psychoneurology was founded.

The Museum of Old St. Petersburg was set up.

The Ancient Theatre of Alexander Yevreinov was opened.

Vera Komissarzhevskaya’s Theatre staged the play, ‘Life of a Man’ by Leonid Andreev, and the lyrical drama, ‘Balaganchik’ (a show-booth) by Alexander Block.

The Third Duma was convoked.

 

1908

The first Russian feature film, ‘Stenka Razin and the Princess’, was shown.

The burial vault of the Grand Dukes of Russia was consecrated in the Fortress of St. Peter and Paul.

‘A Distorting Mirror’ cabaret-theatre was opened.

The first issue of the ‘Satirikon’ journal appeared.

 

1909

The monument to Alexander III was unveiled in Znamenskaya (Holy Sign) Square.

The first issue of the ‘Apollo’ journal appeared.

The House of the Royal Guards Economic Society (later called the House of Leningrad Trade, now – the House of St. Petersburg Trade) was opened.

 

1910

The first zeppelin made its flight over St. Petersburg.

An all-Russia aeronautic festival was held in Kommendantsky (Commandant’s) Aerodrome in Kolomyagy.

The foundation was laid for the Church of Christ the Saviour (The Saviour-on-the-Waters) on the Neva embankment near the Novoadmiralteisky (New Admiralty) canal.

The construction of the Mosque in Kronverksky prospect began.

Russian-Asian Bank was founded.

The census showed the population of the city to make 1 905 600 people.

 

1911

Students’ riots. Peter the Great Bridge (later – Bolsheokhtinsky Bridge) across the Neva river was opened.

The construction of the building of Peter the Great College (now – Nakhimov High School) and the building of the Museum of Ethnography completed.

Pilot A.A. Vassiliev made the first successful flight from St. Petersburg to Moscow.

The monument to the crew of the Stereguschiy (patrolling) destroyer was unveiled in Alexander’s park.

An association of poets - Poets’ Workshop - was founded.

 

1912

A literary art-cabaret, ‘Stray Dog’, was opened.

The construction of the Astoria Hotel, Vavelberg Bank Building and Mertens Trade House in Nevsky prospect completed.

The construction of the new building of the library of the Academy of Sciences and the ‘New Petersburg’ housing complex began.

The first issue of the Bolsheviks’ newspaper ‘Pravda‘ (The Truth) appeared.

The fourth Duma was convoked.

 

1913

The House of Romanov celebrated its tercentenary.

The Optical-Mechanical factory was founded.

Russko-Baltiysky plant produced a heavy multi motor aeroplane - the first one in the history of aviation.

The construction of the German Embassy building in Isaakievskaya (St.Isaack’s) Square and Polovtsov’s Palace on Kamenniy (Stone) Island completed.

Traffic started along Finlandskiy Railway Bridge across the Neva River.

The tragedy, ‘Vladimir Mayakovsky’, and the opera, ‘Victory over the Sun’, were staged at the Luna-park.

Ego-futurists gave their Poezo-concert in the assembly hall of Tenishev’s High School.

The Sirin publishing house began the publication of Andrey Bely’s novel ‘St. Petersburg’.

Their first books of poetry were published by Ossip Mandelstam (‘The Stone») and Anna Akhmatova (‘The Rosary’).

 

1914

War with Germany and Austro-Hungarian Empire began.

St. Petersburg was renamed Petrograd.

 

1915

Crowds of refugees flooded Petrograd.

The City Labour Exchange was opened.

An opposition was formed within the Fourth Duma - ‘The Progressive Block’.

The Buddhist temple was consecrated in Novaya Derevnya (New Village).

‘A Cloud in Trousers’ (poem by Vladimir Mayakovsky) was published.

 

1916

A literary art cabaret – Prival Komediantov (Comedians’ Halt) - was opened.

A new building of the General Treasury was completed in the Fontanka (Fountain) river embankment - its transactions room was over 2000 square meters.

The traffic on the Murmansk railroad began.

Isaakievsky pontoon bridge over the Neva burned.

Gregory Rasputin was murdered in Yussupov’s Palace.

 

1917

February Revolution abolished monarchy.

V.I. Lenin returned from his emigration.

October overturn: Bolsheviks seized power.

The Constituent Assembly was elected.

The population of Petrograd reached 2 500 000 people.

 

1918

Bolsheviks dissolved the Constituent Assembly.

The capital was transferred from Petrograd to Moscow.

The Northern Union of Communes headed by Gregory Zinoviev was formed.

Poet Leonid Kanegisser assassinated the chairman of Petrograd cheka (Extraordinary Commission) Moisey Uritskiy.

Red Terror began.

Vsemirnaya Literatura (Literature of the Entire World) publishing house was founded.

Alexander Block’s poem, ‘The Twelve’, was published.

 

1919

The Northwest Army of General Yudenich approached Petrograd.

The city was besieged.

The Red Army won victories at all the fronts.

The first communist subbotnik (voluntary labour day) was held.

The Monument to the Soldiers of Revolution was constructed in Marsovo Polie (the Field of Mars).

The Big Drama Theatre (BDT), the Museum of the City, the House of Arts (DISK) and the House of Books were opened.

 

1920

The Second Congress of Communist International was held in Tavrichesky (Taurida) Palace.

The Museum of Revolution was opened in the Winter Palace and the Palace of Grand Duke Vladimir Alexandrovich was given to the House of Scholars.

A park was planted on Marsovo Polie (the Field of Mars).

A mass festival celebrated the third anniversary of the revolution.

The factories were at a standstill and streetlights were put out owing to a lack of fuel.

 

1921

Kronstadt uprising against the Bolsheviks.

Petrograd seaport was visited by the first since the beginning of the Civil war merchant ship.

Alexander Block died.

Nicholai Gumiliev was sentenced to death by the Petrograd cheka and shot.

Philharmonic Society concert hall was opened.

‘The Old Petersburg’ Society and the Central Bureau of Regionalism Studies were founded.

The ‘Serapion’s Brothers’ literary group appeared. Gregory Kozintsev, Leonid Trauberg and Sergey Yutkevich set up their ‘Factory of Eccentric Art’ (FECS).

 

1922

A number of leading clergymen were tried and Metropolitan Veniamin was sentenced and shot.

160 scholars and workers of culture were exiled from Russia.

The Baltic Sea Ship Company regenerated its work. The Theatre for Young Spectator was opened.

‘The Soul of Petersburg’ by Nicholai Antsiferov, ‘Tristia» by Ossip Mandelstamm and ‘Anno Domini MCMXXI’ by Anna Akhmatova were published.

 

1923

The construction of the Smolny propelliers began.

Smolny cathedral was closed.

Many a street in Petrograd was renamed.

 

1924

V.I. Lenin died.

Petrograd was renamed Leningrad.

The construction of the Hospital named after I.I. Mechnikov was completed.

The first Fordzon-Putilovets tractors were manufactured.

The first radio program was transmitted from the studio in the Electromechanical Institute.

A disastrous flood – the water raised 369 cm above the ordinary level.

 

1925

Alexander Pushkin’s museum apartment was opened in 12, Moika embankment.

The so-called ‘left opposition’, headed by Gregory Zinoviev, was formed within the Communist Party of Russia (Bolshevik).

The construction of apartment houses began in Traktornaya (Tractor) street. Sergey Yesenin perished in the Angleter hotel.

 

1926

Sergey Kirov headed Leningrad communist party organisation.

Volkhovskaya hydroelectric power station was put into operation.

The monument to Lenin was unveiled in front of Finlyandsky Railway Station.

The premiere of Sergey Prokofiev’s opera – ‘Love for Three Oranges’ – was given at the Academic Theatre of Opera and Ballet (former Mariinsky Theatre).

Regular bus traffic began.

 

1927

Secret gatherings and then the demonstration of the supporters of the ‘united opposition’ headed by Leo Trotsky, Gregory Zinoviev and Leo Kamenev. The Volodarsky (now – named after N.K.Krupskaya), Moskovsko-Narvsky (now – named after A.M. Gorky) and Vyborgsky Palaces of Culture (workers’ clubs) were opened.

In Shirokaya Street the museum of V.I.Lenin was set up.

David Burliuk, Mark Chagal, Natalia Goncharova, Mikhail Larionov, Vassily Kandinsky, Vladimir Tatlin and other avant garde painters introduced the newest trends in arts at the exhibition of their oeuvres in the State Russian Museum.

 

1928

The construction of Baburinsky and Kondratievsky dormitory areas began on the Vyborgskaya Side.

The film of Vsevolod Pudovkin, ‘The End of St. Petersburg’, came out.

The Association of Real Arts (OBERIU) organised its performance party called ‘Three Left Hours’. Leningrad department of Gosizdat (state publishing house) published the last lifetime book of Ossip Mandelstam’s poetry.

 

1929

‘Socialist emulation’ began to develop.

The first accused under the ‘Academy Case’ were arrested.

A vast number of churches were closed in different parts of the city and then some of them were pulled down.

The first in the country sound cinema theatre was opened in 72, Nevsky prospect.

The first chapters of Alexey Tolstoy’s novel, ‘Peter I’, were published.

 

1930

The Institute (university) of Economics and Finance and the Shipbuilding Institute were founded.

The Monument of Glory near the Trinity cathedral of the Izmailovsky Lifeguards regiment was demolished.

The Anti-Religious Museum was opened in Isaakievsky (St.Isaak’s) Cathedral.

The construction of the Bateninsky dormitory area began on the Vyborgskaya Side.

Vassileostrovskaya and Moskovsko-Narvskaya (now – Kirovskaya) kitchen factories were opened.

Dmitry Shostakovich’s opera, ‘The Nose’, and ballet, ‘The Golden Age’ were staged.

 

1931

The construction of the Belomoro-Baltiysky Canal named after Stalin began.

The first Soviet blooming mill was manufactured at the Izhorsky Works.

The Experimental Factory yielded the first in the country batch of synthetic rubber.

Moscovsko-Narvsky (now – Kirovsky) Department Store was opened.

The Monument to the Victims of the ‘Bloody Sunday’ (January 5, 1905) was unveiled on the common grave at the Preobrazhensky (Transfiguration) cemetery.

The first organ concert was given in the Big Concert Hall of the Philharmonic Society.

 

1932

The ‘anti religious pyatiletka (five year period)’ began.

Monks were arrested, churches were closed and destroyed.

The museum of the History of Religion was opened in Kazansky Cathedral, the All-Union Museum of VLKSM (young communist league) was opened in the Winter Palace and the Central Park of Culture and Recreation was opened on Yelagin Island.

The first parade of physkulturnicks (sportsmen) was held in Uritsky (now – Palace) Square.

The construction of the ‘Big House’, the GPU (Central Political Board) building, was completed in Liteiny (Foundry) prospect.

The first in the city automatic telephone station was brought into operation.

Leningrad airport was opened.

 

1933

The systematic demolition of temples continued.

The construction of the Communes House (‘the house of political convicts’) was completed in the Square of Revolution.

Leningrad Butchery (now – the Samson Stock Company) started its work. The Novy (New) Theatre (later – Theatre named after Lensoviet) and Vassileostrovsky Palace of Culture were opened.

Ossip Mandelstam gave his last performance in Leningrad.

 

1934

The Academy of Sciences was transferred from Leningrad to Moscow.

Maly (Small) Opera House staged Dmitry Shostakovich’s opera, «Lady Macbeth of the Province of Mtsensk».

Georgy and Sergey Vassilievs’ film, ‘Chapaev’, produced at Lenfilm studio, appeared on the screens of the city.

Sergey Kirov was killed in Smolny.

Andrey Zhdanov became Secretary of Leningrad Oblast (Region) Party Committee.

Mass repressions began.

 

1935

‘Former supporters of Zinoviev’ and other ‘counter revolutionary elements’ were exiled from the city and oblast of Leningrad.

The Master Plan of the city’s development was approved.

The construction of the buildings of Moscovsky and Kirovsky District Soviets completed.

The necropolis museum, ‘Literatorskie Mostki’ (Writers’ Gangway’), was founded in Volkovskoye Cemetery.

The House of Entertaining Mechanics was opened in Fontanny Dom (‘Fountain house’ - former Sheremetiev’s Palace).

Gregory Kozintsev and Leonid Trauberg’s film, ‘Maxim’s Youth’ came out.

 

1936

The construction of Volodarsky Bridge over the Neva River was completed.

The Theatre named after Lenin Komsomol (now – the ‘Baltiysky Dom’ theatre) was founded.

The first in the city trolley bus line was opened.

The construction of the House of Soviets in Moskovsky prospect began.

 

1937

The peak of ‘big terror’.

The Museum of the Arctic and Antarctic was opened in the building of St. Nicholas Church.

Anichkov Palace was turned into the Palace of Young Pioneers, the Marble Palace housed a department of the Central Museum of V.I. Lenin.

An obelisk was erected in the place of Alexander Pushkin’s duel.

The first part of the film, ‘Peter I’, came out. Leningrad Philharmonic Orchestra performed the Fifth Symphony by Dmitry Shostakovich for the first time.

Alexander Kuprin (the writer) returned to Leningrad from his emigration.

 

1938

‘History of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (Bolsheviks).

Short course.’ was published.

The Society ‘Old Petersburg- New Leningrad’ was closed.

The reconstruction of Lieutenant Schmidt’s Bridge and the construction of Frunzensky Department Store and Lensoviet Palace of Culture completed.

The Museum of Sergey Kirov was opened in the former mansion of ballerina Kshessinskaya and the monument to Kirov was unveiled in Kirov Square.

The first Soviet TV program was telecast from the studio in Academician Pavlov Street.

 

1939

The monument to Alexander III was dismounted and given for preservation to the State Russian Museum.

Soviet-Finnish war began.

The population of Leningrad was 3 200 000.

 

1940

The construction of Leningrad metro began.

Kirov Opera House gave the premiere of Sergey Prokofiev’s ballet, ‘Romeo and Juliet’.

 

1941

Hitler’s Germany attacked the Soviet Union.

The blockade of Leningrad began.

The ‘Road of Life’ was built on the ice of the Ladoga Lake.

 

1942

Hundreds of thousands leningradians died of cold and starvation.

Numerous losses were caused by air raids and bombing.

Attempts to break through the siege failed.

The Seventh Symphony of Dmitry Shostakovich was performed in the Big Hall of Leningrad Philharmonic Society.

‘The Leningrad Poem’ by Olga Bergholtz was published.

 

1943

The blockade of Leningrad was broken.

The first echelon with food arrived at Finlyandsky Railway Station.

 

1944

Leningrad was completely liberated from the blockade.

The population of the city reduced to 560 000. Reconstruction began.

Some old city thoroughfares were given back their historical names.

Trolley buses renewed their traffic.

The ‘Heroic Defence of Leningrad’ exhibition was held in Solianoy (Salty) Town.

 

1945

Victor warriors were given grand welcome on their return from Germany.

Two Victory Parks - Moskovsky and Primorsky - were planted.

 

1946

Eight Nazi criminals were publicly hanged in the square in front of the ‘Giant’ cinema theatre.

The Central Committee of the Communist Party of Russia (Bolshevik) passed its resolution «On the ‘Zvezda’(Star) and ‘Leningrad’ magazines» with charges against Mikhail Zoschenko and Anna Akhmatova.

The museum apartment of Nicholai Nekrasov (a poet) was opened in Liteiny (Foundry) Prospect.

 

1947

The reconstructed TV centre of Leningrad renewed its programs.

The campaign against ‘cosmopolitanism’ started.

The USSR Academy of Arts was transferred from Leningrad to Moscow.

The monument to Nicholai Chernyshevsky was unveiled.

For the first time after the war food rationing coupons were cancelled.

 

1948

A new City Master Plan was passed.

The cruiser ‘Aurora’ was permanently moored at Petrogradskaya Embankment.

Children’s Railway was opened.

 

1949

Soviet television transmitted its first outdoors programme about the military parade and workers’ demonstration in Palace Square.

The so-called ‘Leningrad Case’ was instituted – first people were arrested.

The premiere of Reingold Glier’s ballet, ‘The Bronze Horseman’, was given at the Kirov Opera House.

The memorial museum of Mikhail Lomonosov was opened in the Kunstkammer building.

The industrial output reached its pre-war level. The city began to be supplied with natural gas.

 

1950

Primorsky Victory Park and the Stadium named after Kirov were opened.

The main hearing of ‘the Leningrad Case’ was held in the House of Military Officers.

Six of the accused were executed by shooting.

 

1951

Bolshoi (Big) Krestovsky Bridge across the Bolshaya (Big) Nevka River was constructed.

The military history museum of A.V.Suvorov was reopened after its reconstruction.

 

1952

The Museum of the Defence of Leningrad was demolished.

The monument to N.Rimsky-Korsakov was unveiled in Teatralnaya (Theatre) Square.

 

1953

‘The conspiracy of medical doctors’ was claimed to be disclosed.

Iosif (Joseph) Stalin died.

The rehabilitation of the victims of Stalin’s terror began.

 

1954

The reconstruction of ruined during the war Pulkovo Observatory was completed.

The first in the city self-service shop was opened.

 

1955

The first line of Leningrad metro was brought in operation.

For the first time in this country a house was assembled of prefabricated concrete panels.

The first issue of ‘The Neva’ magazine appeared.

The Museum of the History of Leningrad was opened for visitors.

The construction of Yeggipetsky (Egyptian) Bridge over the Fontanka (Fountain) River completed.

A strong flood raised the water 282 cm higher than the ordinary level.

 

1956

XX Congress of the CPSU (Communist Party of the USSR).

Political convicts were set free and the repressed were rehabilitated.

In the Square of Revolution the construction of Lenproekt Building was completed.

 

1957

Leningrad’s 250-th anniversary was celebrated.

The tradition to give a midday shot from the cannon on top of the Naryshkin bastion of the Fortress of St. Peter and Paul, which had been interrupted in 1934, was renewed.

The monument to Alexander Pushkin was unveiled in Ploschad Iskusstv (the Square of Arts).

The country’s first eternal flame was lit in Marsovo Polie (the Field of Mars).

The Museum of the Great October Socialist Revolution (now – the Museum of the Political History of Rusiia) opened its exhibitions in the former mansion of ballerina Kshessinskaya.

The world’s first atomic icebreaker, ‘Lenin’, was launched.

 

1958

A new wave of anti-religious campaign began.

Mikhail Zoschenko died.

A collection of poems and translations of Anna Akhmatova was published.

 

1959

The restored rooms of the Grand Palace in Pushkin were opened for visitors.

Kirov Opera House gave the premiere of Leonid Yakobsson’s ballet performance ‘Choreographic Miniatures’.

The population of Leningrad reached 3 300 000 people.

 

1960

The Memorial to the Victims of the Blockade was opened in Piskariovskoye Cemetery.

The construction of the new building of Finliandsky (Finland) Railway Station was completed.

 

1961


The construction of the Stadium named after V.I. Lenin was completed.

Most Stroitelei (The Bridge of Builders) spanned the Malaya (Small) Neva was completed.

The Church of the Assumption of the Mother of God (‘The Saviour-on-Sennaya’) was demolished.

The country’s first Palace of Weddings was opened.

 

1962

The Kirov Works started to produce K-700 tractors.

The new building of the Theatre of Young Spectator was constructed in Pionerskaya (Pioneer) Square and the TV tower (316 metres tall) was erected on Aptekarsky Island.

 

1963

House building centres began to assemble standardised high raisers with ‘the apartments of improved quality’.

 

1964

Poet Josef Brodsky was tried and accused of ‘persistent parasitism’.

The first ‘White Nights’ festival of arts was held.

The restored rooms of the Grand Palace in Petrodvoretz were opened for visitors.

A film by Gregory Kozintsev, ‘Hamlet’, screened at the Lenfilm studio, came out.

 

1965

The Necropolis of the Victims of the Blockade was opened at Serafimovskoye Cemetery.

The construction of ‘The Green Belt of Glory’ began.

Alexander Nevsky’s Bridge across the Neva was opened.

 

1966

The third Master Plan of the development of Leningrad was approved.

The Holy Trinity Church in Marata Street was demolished.

The Society for the Preservation of Historical and Cultural Monuments was founded.

Anna Akhmatova died.

 

1967

The construction of Leningrad Atomic Electro Power Station began.

Big Concert Hall ‘Oktyabrskiy’ and Palace of Sports ‘Yubilieniy’ were opened.

The 50-th anniversary of the Great October Socialist Revolution was celebrated with a grand performance on the Neva River (‘The Festival of the ‘Aurora’).

 

1968

The Putevoy (‘En route’) Palace in Srednyaya Rogatka (Middle Crossroads) was demolished.

The monuments to Maxim Gorky and ‘Heroic Komsomol’ were unveiled.

The members of the All-Russia Social Christian League for the Emancipation of the People were tried at court.

 

1969

The country’s first aluminium bridge was constructed (Kolomensky Bridge over the Griboyedov Canal).

The ballet ensemble ‘Choreographic Miniatures’ was organised.

The first issue of the ‘Aurora’ magazine appeared.

 

1970

The construction of the first building of the ‘Leningrad’ hotel was completed.

The Southern Primorsky Park named after V.I. Lenin was opened.

The State rooms of Pavlovsky Palace were restored (in the town of Pavlovsk).

The country’s first universam (self-service food store – analogous to a supermarket) was opened in Kupchino.

 

1971

The Literary Memorial Museum of F.M. Dostoyevsky was opened.

‘The Architecture of Petersburg-Leningrad (18 - beginning of 20 centuries)’ exposition was mounted in the Fortress of St. Peter and Paul.

Gregory Kozintsev’s screen version of ‘King Lear’ came out.

 

1972

The portico by Luidgi Ruska was reconstructed in Nevsky prospect.

Poet Josef Brodsky was forced to emigrate.

The highest air temperature in the history of the city was registered - +33,6 * C.

 

1973

A new airport –‘Pulkovo 1’- was opened.

 

1974

The exhibition of ‘Unofficial Art’ was held in the Palace of Culture named after I.I. Gaz.

A new Centre for International Telephone Communication was brought into operation.

 

1975

The Church of St. Boris and Gleb in Synopskaya Embankment was demolished.

The Monument to Heroic Defenders of Leningrad was unveiled in Ploschad Pobiedy (the Square of Victory) and the obelisk was erected in the place where the Decembrists had been executed at the Kronwerk of the Fortress of St. Peter and Paul.

An exhibition on the history of Russian opera was opened in the memorial flat of Fyodor Shalyapin in Graftio Street.

 

1976

The Palace of Youth was constructed in Pesochnaya (Sandy) Embankment.

The population of Leningrad was 4 400 000.

 

1977

Central Exhibition Hall was opened in the building of former Horse Guards Manege.

The ballet ensemble of Boris Eifman gave its first performance.

Alexei German’s film, ‘Twenty Days without War’, came out.

 

1978

The Hall of Memory at the Monument to Heroic Defenders of Leningrad and the Pribaltiyskaya hotel were opened.

 

1979

For the protection of Leningrad from floods the construction of the dam began in the Gulf of Finland.

 

1980

The museum flat of Alexander Block was opened.

The construction of the Complex for Sports and Concerts in Yuri Gagarin Prospect was completed.

 

1981

The restoration of Menshikov’s Palace, which became one of the departments of the Hermitage, was completed.

The Pulkovskaya hotel was opened.

 

1982

The construction of the passenger seaport in Vassilievsky Island was completed, Kantemirovsky Bridge spanned the Bolshaya (Big) Nevka.

 

1983

For the first time the birthday of St. Petersburg was celebrated, which has become a city’s tradition ever since.

 

1984

Leningrad was awarded the Gold European Medal for the successful preservation of architectural monuments.

‘Zenith’ football team won the USSR championship for the first and last time.

 

1985

Gorbachev’s perestroika began.

The obelisk «To the Hero City of Leningrad’ was erected in Ploschad Vosstaniya (Uprising Square).

 

1986

The renovated Pulkovo 2 Airport was opened.

A meeting was held to prevent the demolition of the House of Delvig in Zagorodny (Country) Prospect.

Growing public activity to protect monuments of history and architecture.

The monument to Mikhail Lomonosov was unveiled in the University Embankment.

 

1987

‘The Master Plan for the Development of Leningrad City and Oblast (Region) till 2005’ was approved.

After the reconstruction the cruiser ‘Aurora’ was returned to the place of its eternal mooring.

Poetess Irina Odoyevtseva returned from emigration.

 

1988

A disastrous fire in the library of the Academy of Sciences.

The reconstructed Church of St. Catherine in Murino was consecrated.

The authorities began to give churches back to the believers.

The Centre for Concerts and Exhibitions ‘Smolny Cathedral’, and the Museum of Benois Family in Petergof were opened.

The population of the city was 5 000 000 people.

 

1989

The historical centre of Leningrad and the palaces and parks of its suburbs were included into the World Heritage list of the UNESCO.

The restoration of the historical street names was put on a systematic basis.

The museum of Anna Akhmatova was opened in the Fontanny Dom (Fountain House).

The restoration of the Hermitage Theatre was completed and ‘The Winter Palace of Peter I’ exposition was mounted there.

The decoration badge – ‘To the Resident of the Besieged Leningrad’ – was introduced.

 

1990

Demonstrations supporting the reforms were held.

The first democratic elections to the City Soviet (Council).

 

1991

The international telemarathon ‘Regeneration’ was held.

The monument to Peter I by Mikhail Shemyakin was installed in the Fortress of St. Peter and Paul.

Anatoly Sobchak was elected the first mayor of the city.

The attempted anti democratic coup failed, and the Communist party of the USSR was banned.

The Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of Russia approved the results of the referendum and the city was returned its historical name of St. Petersburg.

 

1992

The temples were given back to the religious communities.

The department of the Central Museum of V.I. Lenin in Marble Palace was closed.

The palace was given to the Russian Museum.

Grand Duke Vladimir Kirillovich was buried in the reconstructed Grand Dukes’ Vault in the Fortress of St. Peter and Paul.

The reconstruction of the Grand Hotel Europe was completed.

 

1993

The 290-th anniversary of the foundation of St. Petersburg was celebrated.

The Nevsky Palace Hotel was opened.

‘The Historical Cemeteries of St. Petersburg’ guidebook was published.

 

1994

The 3-rd Goodwill Games - about 2 000 sportsmen from 55 countries competed in 24 kinds of sports.

The monument to Alexander III was installed in front of Marble Palace.

 

1995

The first exhibition of trophy works d’art, which had been kept in the museum storage for 50 years, was held.

The Monument to the First Builders of Petersburg was unveiled in former Sampsonievskoye Cemetery.

A big accident happened between the Lesnaya (Timber) and Ploshad Muzhestva (Courage Square) metro stations.

 

1996

The Monument to the Victims of Political Repressions was unveiled in Robespierre embankment.

The publication of the historical-theological encyclopaedia in three volumes – ‘The Relics of St.Petersburg’ – was completed.

 

1997

Vice Governor of St. Petersburg, Mikhail Manevich, was killed.

The monument to Feodor Dostoevsky was unveiled in Vladimirskaya Ploshad (Vladimir’s Square) and the monument to Nickolai Gogol was erected in Malaya Koniushennaya Ploschad (Small Stables Square).

 

1998

The Museum of the Church of the Saviour on the Spilled Blood (the Church of the Resurrection of Christ) was opened to visitors after its restoration.

The construction of the new building of Russian National Library in Moskovsky Prospect was completed.

The remains of Nicholas II, his family members and his nearest were buried in the Cathedral of St. Peter and Paul.